Rout №3 «Derzhprom and surrondings»

Svobody square, Derzhprom (Gosprom), Zagospromie, Kultury Street, Trinklera Street

Derzhprom (Gosprom)

Derzhprom Building without a doubt is the main symbol of Kharkov, and the best building. It was designed as a symbol of Soviet power and Soviet life in Ukraine at a time when Kharkiv was the capital of Soviet Ukrainian Republic. In those years to the city began to move various trusts, occupying buildings unfit for its purpose. As a result about 30 of them formed a private limited company for the construction of a separate, dedicated to their goals building – House of State Industry (Dom Gosudarstvennoi Promyshlennosti – Gosprom), a place for is was chosen for the “circular” square. Two names of it came from two languages – Russian and Ukrainian, and Ukrainian version Derzhprom now is common.

According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the future Svobody Square at the time was a big trash – before it was city-end, immediately after it suburbs began. At the same time with the construction of Derzhprom took place development of area behind it, so called Zagospromie, here were built huge cooperative apartment houses – “Krasnyi Promyshlennik” (“Red industrialist”), “Tabachnik” (“Cigarette Manufacturer”) and others.

March 21, 1925 the Supreme Economic Council announced a competition for project development the building “of a new type corresponding to new tasks of socialist construction,” the main condition imposed on the project – it had to integrate harmoniously with the radial-ring system of the new square, whose name was also in design.
Competition for one of the main buildings in new capital caused serious buzz, and eventually became international, and the winner became a project with the motto “uninvited guest” authorship of Leningraders S.Serafimov, S.Kravets and M. Felger, however, the construction of the building was led to the Kharkiv Engineer Pavel Rottert.

Construction was carried out nearly primitive methods – a giant anthill of 5000 workers, enthusiasts and students of Technology Institute, the hottest days on a construction site at the same time were working up to 15 thousand people. As the equipment were used horses with carts and 14 trucks, which sometimes power of have been not enough. For two and a half years, these people made ​​the miracle, comparable probably to construction of the Egyptian pyramids – as the pyramids are not afraid of time so Derzhprom, built of cement kneaded with sweat and blood, withstood the destructive war, during of which first Ukrainian Skyscraper was several times deliberately tried to blow up by German troops.

Completed Derzhprom became the first building in the ensemble of a circular square – immediately after its construction was held number of competitions for the development of planning solution of square, called in honor of revolutionary Felix Dzerzhinsky, as well as the development of its construction. It was planned to build two buildings on both sides of Derzhprom – House for Project organizations and the House of Cooperation.

The first prize for the design House for Project organizations in the contest again received S. Serafimov in collaboration with MA Zandberg-Serafimova. Their project was designed in the style of Constructivism – strict concrete volumes emphasized the unity of the ensemble of future square, echoing the volumes of the Derzhprom. However, during construction for reasons of economy ceilings in one were constructed on wooden beams, which led to severe damage during the war. During restoration work the House for Project organizations was greatly rebuilt and lost touch with its original appearance, today it houses the main building of the Kharkiv Karazin University.

On the other side of the Derzhprom in 1929 began construction Co-operatives House, no longer made ​​of reinforced concrete but brick, this building became the first Soviet long-term construction in Kharkiv. 5 years later, after the capital was moved from Kharkiv to Kiev, the building was handed over to the Govorov Military and Economic Academy. It was not finished before the war and ended only in 1954, with significant changes in the project – in the end style can be described as Stalin neo-Renaissance, or the Empire. The same remake has undergone building of the hotel International (now the hotel Kharkov), was originally configured in the style of constructivism and the “dressed up” in the Stalin Empire style forms after the war.

The final element of the ensemble of this Square was the building of the Regional Management, which appeared as a result of rebuilt of old building in the Provincial Zemstvo (Management) in 1930s. It was also greatly damaged during the military attacks, and after the war was restored in the style of Stalin’s empire.


Residential area Zagospromie bounded by Pravdy and Lenina avenues and the public garden near metro station “Naukova”, were built in the style of constructivism which combines strictness and rationality of the solutions of facades and plannings. Huge residential complexes were built in belonging to certain co-op, and every house had its name from the belonging of the cooperative and received its name in accordance with professional membership of the residents: “Tabachnik,” “Red industrialist”, “House of specialists”, “The Printer”, “Сhemist”, “Brickmaker” “New life”, “Voenved” and others

Building on the 5 Pravdy Ave is one of the first houses constructed for employees of ministries and agencies working in the Gosprom in the early thirties (the so-called Red industrialist House). It was designed by S. Kravets one of the Derzhprom authors. House number 7 – House of Professionals – was built in 1936 by architect L. Lemysh; 1 Pravdy Ave is a house “Tabachnik”, built in 1930 by architect Frolov, house number three – “Red Chemist” – all these constructivist buildings create a unique sense and understanding of how progressive was architectural thought at that time, because the buildings had not yet lost its relevance.

Writers House “The Word”, 9 Cultury street

Built for Ukrainian Writers in 1928 by architect Dashkevich House “the Word” forever entered into the Ukrainian history as place of short happiness. Here settled the outstanding Ukrainian writers, artists, film directors – representatives of future Executed Renaissance – all of them have lived in this house for only a few years. In the early 30s, most of them were repressed by Stalin’s regime and their families had to flee not to die with them.

Museum of Nature, 8 Trinklera Street

Nature Museum occupies the building built in the years 1899-1901 by the architect Velichko in classical forms. The original building was used as a guesthouse and later, in 1907, was transferred to the Zoological Museum of the University. During the war, thanks to the wives of university professors, who lived in the building, the museum received a writ of protection, and a collection managed to keep almost intact. In 1964 here has moved Mineralogical Museum so the Museum of Natural History was formed – now the Museum of Nature.

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